(This piece — written by Bhushan Nigale — is the fourth in a series that explores the evolution of the software technology stack and software development methodologies in the last two decades. In this instalment Bhushan examines the consequences of the widespread adoption of Agile and Lean.)
In article two of the series I presented the various forces that have led to the evolution of software development practices from the Waterfall model to Lean and Agile. We saw a variety of proximate causes that caused this evolution: the increasing role software plays in all spheres of our life, the massive changes in software architecture and the mainstreaming of Open Source software, the increasing consumerization of IT and the changing demographics of the software industry.
This article examines the consequences of these changes. Mainly, it answers the question: did Agile and Lean hold on to their promise? When a species evolves to adapt to its new environment, manifest changes appear. Can we discern such changes in the industry, for instances in workplaces and the roles played by practitioners? If we live in a post-Waterfall world, what are the obvious signposts that the changes have ushered?
In what follows, I provide an overview of how other industries have begun to adopt Agile, to what extent the hierarchies still matter, the roles of teams over individuals, and the rising importance of roles such as the Product Manager.
The agile movement that arose from the Agile Manifesto is now widespread to the extent that software development organizations consider it the de facto style for delivering innovation at scale. Software development and implementation projects are risky, failure-plagued endeavors: while statistics widely differ, reliable studies (such as the Standish Group’s Annual CHAOS report) report as high as two-thirds of technology projects ending in partial or total failure.
With its emphasis on involving end-users as early as possible and then collaborating with them, smaller release cycles and a clear articulation of user requirements, Agile addresses the most crucial reasons for these failures: users become stakeholders, vested in the success of the project, rather than just using the project ‘thrown over the fence’ to them (e.g. by IT departments). The transparency in progress improves trust and the health of interdepartmental relationships – truth is the best disinfectant.
Hierarchies matter less
A counterintuitive, but welcome, change has been the gradual flattening of organizational hierarchies. While Lean originated in manufacturing companies, traditionally hierarchical with a ‘command-and-control’ operational model, its fundamental principle of putting customer value first meant that employees need to be more empowered to ensure this principle lives in practice. Thus, a product owner several levels below the unit head, takes significant decisions and takes accountability in the success of the product: brand new announcements in products and cloud services are increasingly made by Product Managers and not development departmental heads.Continue reading “The New Methodology: Impact”